In particular, one of the most intriguing problems in all of solar physics is the identification of the mechanisms that heat the solar chromosphere (10 000 –
20 000 K) and corona (several million K) while the underlying photosphere reaches only about 6 000 K. There is no doubt that this spectacular energy dissipation comes from the magnetic fields. There are many candidate processes, like sunspots, prominences, flares, energetic particles, and coronal mass ejections but the precise mix is not yet known. Besides, precise understanding of the turbulent nature of magnetic fields, the origin of solar and stellar winds and heating of the Steller atmosphere, Plasma instabilities, origin of solar irradiance variability and the impact of solar magnetism on near-earth space weather are other open questions.
To understand these processes high-resolution observational of the physical conditions in the photosphere and the lower atmospheric layers if the Sun is essential alongside the development of numerical and computational techniques. Deciphering the complexity of solar magnetic fields and their dynamical and energetic effects should help to solve some of the key problems of solar physics.